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A consequence of such clay- mineral data has been to improve the quality of some ceramic products and to reduce the time necessary to fire them. The lamination is parallel to the bedding and has not been developed by postdepositional metamorphic action. 86 Pauling, L., The Structure of Micas and Related Minerals, Proc. Mehmel 79 of this group was the first to indicate 70 Gieseking, J. The Mg Si Os formed in the firing of some montmorillonites is com- parable with the "mesoenstatite" of Thilo and Rogge.
In the oil industry certain types of bentonite clay are essential for the preparation of the muds required for the drilling of many oil wells, and other types of bentonite clay form the basis for many of the catalysts used in the refining of petroleum products. The requirements of composition are substantially the same for a shale as for a clay. E., Mechanism of Cation Exchange in the Montmorillonite-Beidel- lite-Nontronite Type of day Mineral, Soil Sci., 47, 1-14 (1939). P., Molecular Associations between Montmorillonite and Some Poly- functional Organic Liquids, J. 70 This material is probably to be looked upon as a rudimentary nucleation rather than as a normal crystallization.
Thus, only certain clays of particular clay-mineral composition will withstand high temperatures and, therefore, can be used for the making of refractory brick. 264 Organophilic Clay-mineral Complexes 265 Structural Implications of Montmorillonite-Organic Complexes . Shale is a fine-grained, earthy, sedimentary rock with a distinct laminated, or layered, character. This same team of workers 76 ' 77 investigated many German clays and were among the first to show the relationship between the properties of the individual clay minerals and the larger ceramic and other properties of the clays themselves. The fine-grained cristobalite resulting from syntheses in heterogeneous matrices is noticeably variable and of uncertain inversion character.
Studies of the changes taking place when clay minerals are heated to elevated temperatures have greatly enhanced the understanding of exactly what happens when clay products are burned. 250 Contents xi Reactions with Montmorillonite and Halloysite 252 Ionic reactions. Comparison of ionic and polar complexes Reactions with Clay Minerals Other Than Montmorillonite and Halloy- site 262 Kaolinite. The layering may be due to a general parallel arrangement of flake-shaped or elongate particles or to an alternation of beds of somewhat different composition. Correns 78 and his associates at the University of Rostock published valuable data on the X-ray, optical, and chemical specifications of the various clay minerals. Such material gradually becomes typical cristobalite upon ignition to sufficiently high temperatures, apparently without any sudden energy effects.
Researches into the structure and properties of kaolinite have permitted improvements in the clays produced for the paper trade; these have resulted in improvements of such paper properties as acceptance to ink, rate of drying, etc. Rehydration Vermiculite 231 Dehydration and phase changes on heating. Argillite is a fine-grained argillaceous material that is massive and some- what indurated and hard. They conclude that the transition from the old to the new phase requires no chaotic disintegration followed by the 70 Thilo, E., and G. They conclude further that the development of mullite from pyrophyllite, which is probably similar to its development from montmorillonite, is carried forward to a considerable extent along the same lines as the development of the f orsterite.
The reason for this great expansion of interest in clays has been twofold. MISCELLANEOUS PBOPEBTIBS 295 Solubility of the Clay Minerals 295 General statement. Many materials are called clays in which the clay-grade and clay-mineral component make up considerably less than half the total rock. W., The Structure of Vermiculites and Their Collapse by Dehydration, Am. Later Jordan 72 in some extremely interesting and important work showed that multiple adsorp- tion of organic molecules by montmorillonite was possible and described organophilic montmorillonite-organic complexes which formed gels in organic liquids. Siefert, Plasticity and Drying Properties of Certain days as Influenced by Electrolyte Content, J. Suitable articulation of these pairs actually does simulate the quartz arrangement of height equivalent to one complete unit cell, and the new grouping effects a localized gain in density of the order of about 10 per cent.Obviously the likelihood of the accuracy of such predic- tions is increased if the fundamental factors controlling the properties in question are understood. To the agronomist it is the loose regolith Introduction 3 at the earth's surface. Rowland, Differential Thermal Analysis of Clay Minerals and Other Hydrous Materials, Am. This expansion was immediately followed by a large contraction up to about 950C, when the sample again expanded (Fig. Eieke and Mauve 84 have shown (Table 27) that the specific gravity of a sample of montmorillonite decreased on heating from 600 to 800C, fol- lowed by a slight increase when it was heated to 950C. Hof mann and Endell carried their rehydration tests over short periods of time, and somewhat different results might be found for longer intervals of rehydration.