Before contemporary egyptology could do its work, Ancient Egypt was the object of three major reconstructions : Both the Hellenistic, Scriptoral and Renaissancist reconstructions are flawed and rejected.The work of appreciating Ancient Egypt has to be redone from scratch, which is precisely what egyptologists and other scientists have been doing for the last two centuries (with an increasing amount of technical data becoming available in the last four decades).1075 BCE), although the cultural pattern and its sacral core continued to remain operation long after Pharaonic Egypt -in Greek guise- had finally come to an end with the suicide of Queen Cleopatra VII (30 BCE).Dramatic directions are sparse, but the fact they exist proves the importance of this-life ritual in Ancient Egyptian religion.the oracle) and considering their effect in the great plan of things. However, contrary to theatre, an audience and an applause are absent.Nobody doubts Egyptian religion was highly ritualistic, involving daily ceremonial activities (complex rituals celebrating the Divine) and regular, popular festivals, or public celebrations, with a pre-determined periodicity (daily, quaterly, monthly, yearly, etc.) cast in a religious calendar, based on stellar (stars), astral (planets), seasonal (Sun and Sothic cycle), monthly (the 4 quaters of the Moon) and daily phenomena (decans and Earth-rotation).In this sensu lato, the "obsessive rituals" of the compulsive neurotic are included.
The latter is given a mental architecture thanks to a set of symbols of transcendence and/or immanence. In magical rituals, the intention is to pacify, to grow, to shield or to destroy : protection, defence, lawful combat, execration, healing, the restoration of a state of affairs, the reversal of misfortune (caused by negative energies), healing, natural evolution etc. In many ways, magic is what makes religion possible.
The Egyptian deposit is a vast storehouse of images, magical practices, spiritual intentions and .
It constitutes a broad cultural pattern (stretching over three millenia), which has been a source of wisdom and inspiration for all Mediterranean spiritual traditions, in particular Judaism and Christianity (Islam was influenced via Despite contemporary egyptology, a precise historical reconstruction of Ancient Egyptian rituals is impossible. Even an educated reconstruction would contain many "blanks", crippling the dynamics of the ritual.
Only Pharaoh could open the bolts of heaven (on the two wooden doors of the central shrine) and "see" the deity "face to face". the testimony of ) was ineffable, but conferred a higher understanding to the King, enabling him to unite the "Two Lands". Let us distinguish between different cycles of ritual worship : not to have been used for a netherworldy Osirian mystery drama.
As no other evidence of the sort of papyrus Leiden 32 T has (yet) been found, no final conclusions are at hand.Many different definitions of ritual may be formulated.